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[salt tank information] [fishes] [building new tank] [disease recognition]

                                                                     [invertebrates] [starfish, snails] [crabs] [anemone]

 

                       

Invertebrates

With the perfect water quality it is very uncommon for invertebrates get "sick" . Although it would be best if we could pay more attention to our invertebrates. Just five minutes daily is perfect to observe both fish and corals. I'd like to tell to you more about invertebrates "sicknesses" and causes.

 

"Planarians"  are white and red worms 5cm in length. They can harm the anemone and the corals as they excrete a toxic mucus. These warms have to be taken away from the tank by siphoning.  It must be done at night. Use the bright light of a torch and keep it for a while above the tank. Many of them will come out to the strong light so you can easily  get them out.

 

  Other animals that harm the invertebrates are  the "Polychaeten". Usually they are eating dead animals but also  they can eat anemone and corals. Sometimes when eating they can damage the coral and anemone by their sharp teeth. You can use a piece of dead fish as bait and get them away from the tank. And of course it must be done at night as they are also night animals. The smallest ones are hiding inside the sand during the day. So you can siphon 30-50% of sand and rinse it with fresh water. Usually it is quite enough in order to get rid 70% of them. Do not wash all sand because it can kill your live anaerobic bacteria (that live there and help in nitrite removing). Also it can remove little harmless creatures which make your sand live and help to clean the water by eating the uneaten food. 

ATTENTION:  do not touch these animals  with bare hands, because their feet  can easily break and they can harm your skin.

I'd like to tell you also that many species of Snails, yes Snails,  are eating corals and anemone. If you have invertebrates in your tank , only turbo snails, grazers snails, asteria snails, trochus and some hermit crabs are allowed, because they help to clean the tank from unwanted  algae. It is better to ask your local pet store which species are ok.

Some species of Shrimp called the "Marbied Shrimps" can cut in pieces the anemone. They are night animals as almost all invertebrates are. You can easily get rid of them by siphoning  from reef tank.

 

Many diseases like (parasites, bacteria ) are usually present after some chemicals destruction such as ozone or other, and never in a healthy tank. In any case, you mustn't use any kind of antibiotic or other kind of pharmaceutical substances.  Because the  pharmaceutical staff do not make difference between the "desirable" or "undesirable" invertebrates. If you use it they will all  die. That's why we never use Antibiotics in our reef tanks.

Clams

Description: Today, Maxima clams are among the most popular for their electric coloration and interesting patterns. Some Maxima clams are subcategorized by the characteristics of their markings and are referred to as Ultra Maxima clams (for their extremely electric blue and purple colors). T. maxima exhibit a wide range of beautiful colors and patterns in their mantles. Maximum size is approximately 14".
Natural Environment:
Indo-Pacific in reef top, shallow water, high current areas where they embed themselves partially into the substrate (rock or rubble) attached by their strong byssus filaments. They are also sometimes found at depths of up to 45 feet.
Hardiness: T. maxima is a moderately hardy clam which usually does well in reef tanks given strong lighting and clear water conditions with low to moderate water flow.
Lighting: Requires fairly intense lighting depending on tank size. The clam coloration can change depending upon lighting conditions.
Water Current: Low to moderate.
Temperature: Does well within normal reef tank temperature ranges of 25C-28C.
Feeding: Primarily photosynthetic. They may benefit from feedings of phytoplankton, but it is not required.
Supplements: Proper calcium levels (350-500 milligrams per liter) are important for growth as is maintaining good alkalinity levels.
Tank Positioning: Position on the substrate in the bottom of the tank in a low to moderate water flow area. Can also be positioned on live rock if care is taken to locate it so that it cannot move and fall from its perch.

Blue Maximas
....  as above....

Teardrop Maxima's
 

The T. gigas clam is the largest of the clams kept in reef tanks.....

 

Derasa clams continue to grow in popularity for both their ease of care and fast growth......

 

The T. crocea clam

Squamosa clams
 

 

 

Corals


Red Tree Gorgonian.
Does well in any lighting conditions! A red body with white polyps . Give medium to strong water current. Low aggression . For the beginner through advanced hobbyist. Since it is non-photosynthetic, no direct food is required. Though we still recommend Phytoplankton or some type of invert/plankton type of food for maximum polyp extension.
Yellow Tree Gorgonian. Does well in any lighting conditions!  An orange body with white polyps and red spots .Give medium to strong water current. Low aggression , For the beginner through advanced hobbyist. Since it is non-photosynthetic, no direct food is required. Though we still recommend Phytoplankton or some type of invert/plankton type of food for maximum polyp extension.
Golden Sea Rod. The Golden beauty is also known as a Golden Sea Whip, or Golden Sea Blade. Underwater epoxy is commonly used to anchor the base to a piece of live rock in the reef aquarium. Being photosynthetic , it will require a moderate amount of light depending on the amount of filter feeding food that is available. They make a rewarding addition to a reef system. The Golden Sea Rod should be fed a few times a week with a filter feeding food. Provide a varied diet of live or frozen baby brine shrimp, Marine Snow, Phytoplankton or any other suitable micro foods. In order to inhibit algae and Cyanobacteria growth, it is important that it is provided with a medium to strong, constant or intermittent water flow. This coral will also benefit from the addition of the normal reef trace elements and the addition of iodine, calcium, and strontium on occasion.
Purple Sea Blade. Purple gorgonians are a shallow to mid-depth Gorgonian. Easily identified by the beautiful purple coloring, flatter branches with white polyps arising from the blade like edges. Give them Low to Medium Lighting. For the beginner through advanced hobbyist, photosynthetic, no direct food required, but phytoplankton does accelerate growth and color so some type of plankton type food is highly recommended.
Red Tree Gorgonian. Bright red polyps on an orange body. This is a filter feeder that likes low light, so fluorescent lighting is just fine. With bright lights place  down low in the tank., A beauty of for the beginner through advanced hobbyist.
Green Lace. The Green Lace fan is also known as a Sea Whip, or Green Sea Blade. Its branches are flattened and blade-like. Underwater epoxy is commonly used to anchor the base to a piece of live rock in the reef aquarium. Being photosynthetic , it will require a moderate amount of light depending on the amount of filter feeding food that is available. They make a rewarding addition to a reef system. The Green Lace should be fed a few times a week with a filter feeding food. Provide a varied diet of live or frozen baby brine shrimp, Marine Snow, Phytoplankton or any other suitable micro foods. In order to inhibit algae and Cyanobacteria growth, it is important that it is provided with a medium to strong, constant or intermittent water flow. This coral will also benefit from the addition of the normal reef trace elements and the addition of iodine, calcium, and strontium on occasion.
Silver Sea Fan. Underwater epoxy is commonly used to anchor the base to a piece of live rock in the reef aquarium. Being photosynthetic , it will require a moderate amount of light depending on the amount of filter feeding food that is available. They make a rewarding addition to a reef system. It should be fed a few times a week with a filter feeding food. Provide a varied diet of live or frozen baby brine shrimp, Marine Snow, Phytoplankton or any other suitable micro foods. In order to inhibit algae and Cyanobacteria growth, it is important that it is provided with a medium to strong, constant or intermittent water flow. This coral will also benefit from the addition of the normal reef trace elements and the addition of iodine, calcium, and strontium on occasion.
Ricordea Florida.
Ricordea florida mushrooms are some of the most colorful available. Ricordea florida is an animal somewhere between a coral and an anemone, and is found living in the reefs of the Caribbean. The brightness and vibrancy of the colors is absolutely outstanding. Unfortunately for most hobbyists, the orange/variety is almost never found in local aquarium shops, and expensive if you do find it. Last, they are photosynthetic and survive fine with no feeding. This variety is orange/pink in color with shads of golden yellow. The colors of these invertebrates are further intensified under fluorescent actinic lighting. It will adapt to a wide variety of lighting conditions, and care should be taken to acclimate this coral to metal halide lighting. Place the invertebrate low in the aquarium until it opens fully, then gradually over a few weeks, move the rock to the desired location. It prefers a low water movement within the aquarium. The light driven process of photosynthesis provides the majority of its nutritional requirements. It also eats phytoplankton.

Blue/Purple Ricordea. Ricordea florida mushrooms are some of the most colorful available. This variety is mostly blue in color with shades of purple, and pink. The oral disc of these Ricordea florida are often neon yellow/orange in color. The colors of these invertebrates are further intensified under fluorescent actinic lighting. These blue mushrooms will even glow pink under straight actinic lighting! It will adapt to a wide variety of lighting conditions, and care should be taken to acclimate this coral to metal halide lighting. Place the invertebrate low in the aquarium until it opens fully, then gradually over a few weeks, move the rock to the desired location. It prefers a low water movement within the aquarium. The light driven process of photosynthesis provides the majority of its nutritional requirements. It also eats phytoplankton.
Purple Bulls eye Mushroom from Tonga. This extremely rare variety of Tonga mushroom, is just incredible looking in any reef tank. It has thicker tissues than any other Rhodactis species., and it is wildly colorful. The disc margin has toe-like tentacles. Both beautiful to look at, it's also easy to keep. It does not require supplemental feeding and does not feed as readily as other species in the genus.
 

Green and Blue Bullseye Mushroom  (Rhodactis Inchoata). This is another awesome one. A multicolored bulls eye mushroom is rare and very beautiful indeed! Polyps are beautiful, very colorful. This is a very nice contrasting color for Tonga mushrooms. An excellent collector's item for any mushroom or ricordia freak! Both beautiful to look at, it's also easy to keep. It does not require supplemental feeding and does not feed as readily as other species in the genus.
Bright Red/Pink Pacific Ricordea Yuma. Ricordea Yuma is always spectacular, but some especially prized specimens have brilliant fluorescent proteins in shades of orange, red, or pink. Ricordea yuma is readily distinguished from Ricordea florida by the fact that the Ricordea Yuma has pseudo tentacles on the oral cone, while Ricordea florida does not. Also, Ricordea florida often has numerous mouths and elongated irregular shapes, while Ricordea yuma is usually circular, with only one mouth.  
Pacific Ricordea Yuma. Ricordea Yuma is always spectacular, but some especially prized specimens have brilliant fluorescent proteins in shades of orange, red, or pink. In the case of Rainbow Yuma's the colors are mixed and everyone is a little different. Ricordea yuma is readily distinguished from Ricordea florida by the fact that the Ricordea Yuma has pseudo tentacles on the oral cone, while Ricordea florida does not. Also, Ricordea florida often has numerous mouths and elongated irregular shapes, while Ricordea yuma is usually circular, with only one mouth.  
Green Striped (Watermelon) Mushroom. Does well in ANY lighting or water flow conditions! Very hardy (no need to worry about keeping these) , may be kept under virtually any light or water flow conditions.
Purple/Green Mushroom. Very hardy (no need to worry about keeping these), may be kept under virtually any light or water flow conditions.
Green Elephant Ear Mushroom (Rhodactis mussoides).

Does well in ANY lighting or water flow conditions!
Very hardy (no need to worry about keeping these) , may be kept under virtually any light or water flow conditions.
Metallic Green and Hairy Mushroom. Does well in ANY lighting or water flow conditions! A brightly colored mushroom anemone with a very unique texture. Very hardy (no need to worry about keeping these) , may be kept under virtually any light or water flow conditions.
Frilly Lavender with Green centers!!!
Glowing Green base color with purplish very "hairy" tentacles! One of the nicer mushroom verities available, great coverage.

 

 

Green Ricordea. Does well in ANY lighting or water flow conditions! Exceptional coverage. Simply awesome. Very hardy (no need to worry about keeping these) , may be kept under virtually any light or water flow conditions. Sold per mushroom, and are attached to a piece of substrate or small rock.
Tonga Purple Mushrooms. Awesome just doesn't seem adequate enough to describe. Does well in ANY lighting or water flow conditions! Very hardy (no need to worry about keeping these) , may be kept under virtually any light or water flow conditions.
Bright Red Mushrooms. Does well in ANY lighting or water flow conditions! Super metallic red. Very hardy (no need to worry about keeping these) , may be kept under virtually any light or water flow conditions.
 

POLYP CORALS


Red Colony Polyps. These are fancy colony polyps. They spread very rapidly in the aquarium, and will grow into a dense mat covering the rockwork of the aquarium. They are easy to maintain, making them a good choice for the beginner reef aquarists. They will reproduce easily in the reef aquarium by budding (splitting off a portion of their base or mouth), which will increase the size of their colony.
Blue Colony Polyp.
Orange Colony Polyps.
Silver Colony Polyps.
Green Colony Polyps.

 

 

  
Blastomussa Wellsi.
Blastomussa likes low water flow and a low placement in the aquarium. Its round, enlarged discs come in a variety of colors (or combination of colors) including red, blue, and green. It will not harm other corals. It does not require target feeding. Specialized foods designed for filter feeders or phytoplankton will, however, be accepted.
Red Sea Pink & White Xenia.  The crown jewel among xenia species, it's hardy and very attractive with fast pulsing action. It does not grow as fast as other xenias, but pulses much quicker then tree xenia and has a nice white/pink color, one of the premium strains of xenia. They grow best in medium to high lighting, and feed on phytoplankton (marine plankton) and reef supplements, such as iodine, iron, strontium and trace elements. Photosynthetic, no direct food required, but Phytoplankton does accelerate growth and color

Green & White Xenia
Pom-Pom Xenia

 


Pipe Organ. Pipe organ is a funny coral. It looks like polyps but it creates a skeleton. The best part of a pipe organ coral is the fact that it looks just as good when the polyps are in as when they are out.
Red Chile/Cactus Coral. Sometimes you hear of this beauty called Cactus Coral. Others Chile coral. Either way, a real beauty and simple to keep. Does well in under fluorescent lighting or low light areas of your tank. White polyps on a strawberry red soft coral make for a beautiful coral for your reef.
Purple Clove Polyp. Clove Polyps wave beautifully in the current. They will grow and reproduce by budding, when provided with the proper environment. Place polyps along the bottom half of the aquarium on an exposed rock. Make sure that currents will be able to supply them with necessary nutrients and trace elements. Leave several inches between them and other specimens, as they will usually expand their colony and can be stung by other corals. Although symbiotic algae called zooanthellia hosted within them supply most of their nutritional requirements through photosynthesis they do require supplemental feedings. Supplementing their diet with the addition of trace elements, marine snow, phytoplankton, and food for filter feeders will help to insure their continued good health.
Blue Gonipora. Large blue flower-like polyps!! Not seen to often in the trade, a nice addition to a reef tank.
Red Gonipora. Metallic red flower-like polyps!! Will do well in ANY lighting or water flow conditions! other soft corals.


 
Green Rasta Leather. Very long strands of leather is the best way to describe this favorite from Fiji. Lot's of movement . Long robust strands or tentacles.
Green Finger Leather. The polyps of this coral are a bright green color. This is a fast growing and very easy to keep coral - it tolerates low to bright light and medium to high currents. This coral is recommended for beginners. Grows fast and can be easily propagated from cuttings.
Yellow Finger Leather. Leather corals of the genus Sinularia are generally hardy and make excellent additions to a beginner or advanced reef aquarium. They are fast growers and can quickly turn into a the showpieces of the tank. Coming from many islands in the Indo-Pacific, including Fiji, Tonga, Solomon Islands, and the Great Barrier Reef. Sinularia does not require as much light as some other corals. It can be kept under normal output fluorescents without much difficulty. In some cases, it may extend more readily under subdued lighting, however it may display brighter coloration when placed under stronger lighting. Moderate water movement is recommended. Sinularia relies heavily on the products of their zooanthellia but also may feed on phytoplankton and similarly sized micro fauna in the water column.
Tonga Finger Leathers
Blue Devil's Finger Leather
Purple Tree Colt Coral. On a scale of 1-10, difficulty of care is a 2!!! A most popular soft corals because of it's beauty and hardiness. From a single central stalk, it branches out, forming a tree with feathery polyps. Easy to grow. You slice it and propagate it, by attaching it to other bases. Very easy to grow, and keep looking good! Very hardy (no need to worry about keeping these), will thrive under virtually any light or water flow conditions.
Bright Red Carnation Corals. A beautiful coral to add bright color to your reef tank. Low to medium light, may be kept in a fluorescent tank!!!
Rose Leather. Rose leathers are found in cocoa, brown, sometimes green and blue. They can handle low to high lighting conditions, low to medium water current, and is recommended for the beginner through the advanced hobbyist. Though photosynthetic (no direct food required), phytoplankton food will accelerate growth and color.

STONY CORALS


Pink Birdnest Seriatapora. Does best in strong indirect light. Easy to care for as long as you have strong light. Requires medium to strong current.
Neon Green Acropora.
Purple Tip Acropora .
Blue Acropora.
Purple Acropora.
 

 


Bright Neon Green Polyps Too!
Bright Pink Montipora Digitata
. Montipora Digitata is a small polyp stony (SPS) coral also referred to as either Velvet Branch, or Velvet Finger Coral. Montipora is peaceful and can be placed in close proximity to other similar peaceful corals in the reef aquarium. For the SPS family they are particularly hardy and fast growing for aquarists, warranting their great popularity. Symbiotic algae zooanthellia are hosted within this organism. It likes to eat filter feeding invert food, brine shrimp, micro-plankton a few times per week. For continued good health, it will also require the addition of calcium, strontium, and other trace elements to the water. It will require medium lighting combined with medium water movement within the aquarium. Note:
An important thing to remember with Montipora's of all types is to gradually adapt them from lower to higher light conditions (place lower in the system for the first few weeks to avoid bleaching (loss of zooanthellia), and slowly move them up.

Orange Montipora Digitata.
nice and fuzzy too!Purple Montipora Digitata
.
Pink Pocillopora (Pocillopora damicornis). Pink Pocillopora damicornis , also commonly known as a pink cauliflower coral, is a beautiful pink color, and very fuzzy in appearance. Pocillopora grows very rapidly in the aquarium under the right conditions. It prefers a moderately high light level combined with strong intermittent water current within the aquarium. For continued good health, it will require the addition of supplemental calcium, strontium, and other trace elements to the water. They will thrive in a variety of lighting conditions. Alter their position in the aquarium depending on the lighting, and provide at least 3 watts per gallon using one of the lighting systems mentioned above. It will also benefit from additional food fed weekly in the form of micro-plankton or foods designed for filter feeding invertebrates.
Blue Millepora. Cool blue millepora that is a must have for any millepora collection. It can develop deep blue coloration under 20k lighting. These corals will grow very rapidly in the aquarium under the right conditions. It prefers a moderately high light level combined with strong intermittent water current within the aquarium. For continued good health.  They will thrive in a variety of lighting conditions. Alter their position in the aquarium depending on the lighting, and provide at least 3 watts per gallon using one of the lighting systems mentioned above.
Purple Peach fuzz Staghorn Acropora. Another rare one, The Purple Peach fuzz Stag horn  is a fast growing coral. When the polyps are extended this is a fuzzy species. The Purple Peach fuzz Stag horn requires moderate lighting ranging from power compacts. Provide at least 3 watts per gallon. For continued good health, it will also require the addition of calcium, strontium, and other trace elements to the water. While it does not require additional food to maintain its health in the reef aquarium, it will feed on micro-plankton and foods designed for filter feeding invertebrates.
Acropora Blue Tenius
Acropora Granulosa (also called Bottlebrush).
Purple Montipora Capicornus. This  brilliant bluish purple coral is just beautiful. For the SPS family they are particularly hardy and fast growing. That, along with their sheer beauty, warrants their great popularity. Quite peaceful, it can be placed in close proximity to other similar peaceful corals in the reef aquarium. It will require medium to high lighting, combined with medium water movement within the aquarium. For continued good health, it will also require the addition of calcium, strontium, and other trace elements to the water. It likes to eat filter feeding invert food, brine shrimp, micro-plankton a few times per week.. 
Bright Orange Montipora Capicornus. The spiral growth patterns of Montipora capicornus is unforgettable. These  orange caps are just gorgeous! For the SPS family they are particularly hardy and fast growing. That, along with their sheer beauty, warrants their great popularity. Quite peaceful, it can be placed in close proximity to other similar peaceful corals in the reef aquarium. It will require medium to high lighting, combined with medium water movement within the aquarium. For continued good health, it will also require the addition of calcium, strontium, and other trace elements to the water. It likes to eat filter feeding invert food, brine shrimp, micro-plankton a few times per week..
Stylophora Pistillata. Deep red with red polyps that have a blue hue to them. A fairly easy to maintain coral. Does best in strong indirect light.  Requires medium to strong current.
Metallic Green Flat Brain aka: Pacific Rose Coral. Does well in ANY lighting or water flow conditions! To see this beauty get huge, place in an area with low to medium water flow.
Metallic Green Open Brain.
Red Open Brain.
Purple Tip Frogspawn. Large polyps expand during the daytime. Requires low to medium light and medium to high water movement. Frogspawn corals are photosynthetic, so no direct food is required, but Phytoplankton foods will accelerate growth and produce better coloration.
Metallic Green Torch Coral. The Green Torch Coral, is commonly collected from the Indian Ocean. One of a family of corals that have branching skeletons with a large polyp at the end of each branch. The tentacles of Torch Corals have one rounded end, as opposed to the elongated, or anchor-shaped ends of Hammer or Anchor Corals. Corals of the Euphyllia species can do well in all ranges of light intensity and water flow. Euphyllia Corals are some of the hardiest Large-Polyp Stony Corals, so they are good corals for beginners. Large polyps expand during the daytime. Requires low to medium light and medium to high water movement. Torch corals are photosynthetic, so no direct food is required, but Phytoplankton foods will accelerate growth and produce better coloration.
Super Glowing Maze Brain. This Fluorescent green coral describes it's name perfectly. It looks like a giant brain! Glows incredibly well under actinic lighting, very hardy, extremely easy to keep. Maintenance is relatively easy, making them excellent choices for the beginner to expert hobbyist. They require moderate lighting combined with moderate water movement within the aquarium. For continued good health, calcium, strontium, and other trace elements should be added to the water. It will also benefit from the addition of supplemental food in the form of micro-plankton or brine shrimp, fed twice per week in the evening while its tentacles are visible.
Green Moonstone. These beauties really stand out . A large polyp stony (LPS) corals often referred to as Moon, Pineapple, Brain, Closed Brain, Star, Worm, or Honeycomb Coral. Impressive rounded craters make them unforgettable. A great centerpiece in any reef. Maintenance is relatively easy, making them excellent choices for the beginner to expert hobbyist. They require moderate lighting combined with moderate water movement within the aquarium. For continued good health, calcium, strontium, and other trace elements should be added to the water. It will also benefit from the addition of supplemental food in the form of micro-plankton or brine shrimp, fed twice per week in the evening while its tentacles are visible.
Metallic Green Anchor Hammer Coral. Hammer corals are fairly hardy once established in the aquarium. They require moderate to strong lighting, and prefer low to moderate water motion. They will do well within a range of temperature, from 25c-28c . Care must be taken in placement, since Hammer corals expand considerably from their skeleton and have sweeper tentacles that are up to 2" long. These tentacles can sting neighbors, so placement with enough room left around them is important. They can be kept in close proximity to others in the same family such as frogspawn or torch coral though. Being photosynthetic, they do not need to be directly fed, but will take small meaty foods that are offered.
Green Bubble Coral. Green Bubble Corals are hard to find but oh so beautiful. A terrific beginner coral. Very simple, a great choice for one of your first coral's. Does well in any lighting conditions! Easy to Keep, may be kept in a fluorescent tank!!!
Purple Montipora Nodosa. This encrusting coral has a brilliant purple coloration. The polyps can have a different coloration. The surface tends to be smooth. Moderate to strong lighting is required to maintain the intense coloration. The coral also needs moderate current to prevent particulate matter from settling on its surface. For the SPS family they are particularly hardy and fast growing for aquarists, warranting their great popularity. Very peaceful , it can be placed in close proximity to other similar peaceful corals in the reef aquarium.
Fox Coral. Unique in color, texture and shape. Fox is a hearty coral that does not require much light. For maximum expansion, put in an area of low water flow. Expect some diversity since each animal.
 

email me : akop_arakelian@hotmail.com


Hakob Arakelian
Copyright 2005 [Hakob Arakelian].